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In Sweden, 24 December is the highlight of Christmas. Schoolchildren are on holiday, as well as most parents. After enjoying the abundant Christmas smorgasbord, everyone is waiting for that special knock on the door, which means that that Father Christmas has finally arrived with the presents.

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Photo: Hans Strand/Folio/imagebank.sweden.se


In Sweden, 24 December is the highlight of Christmas. Schoolchildren are on holiday, as well as most parents. After enjoying the abundant Christmas smorgasbord, everyone is waiting for that special knock on the door, which means that that Father Christmas has finally arrived with the presents.

Advent – countdown to Christmas

The first Sunday of Advent comes about four weeks before Christmas. That’s when people light the first candle in the Advent candlestick. This is always a special event, eagerly awaited. Each Sunday until Christmas, a candle is lit (and blown out after a while), until all four candles are alight. And on each of these Sundays, many Swedes enjoy glögg – a hot, spicy mulled wine with blanched almonds and raisins – and pepparkakor (gingerbread biscuits).

With every Sunday of Advent, the children’s expectations grow. On the telly, there is a special Christmas calendar show for the young with 24 episodes that runs from 1 to 24 December. It, too, serves as a countdown to the big day.

The first candle in the Advent candlestick is lit. It’s the first Sunday of Advent.

Photo: Simon Paulin/imagebank.sweden.se

A family affair

People have bought their presents and their Christmas food, and the home has been cleaned and decorated according to each family’s traditional habits.

Christmas is usually the main family event of the year, and there is always a certain amount of discussion about where to celebrate it this time round. In 2020, the discussions have circled around whether to celebrate together at all. Just like in many other countries, families find themselves separated by the effects of a persistent pandemic.

A normal year, those wishing to be reunited with their families often have to travel far, as Sweden is a large country. Train and air tickets must be booked at least two months in advance, and motorists are advised to start their journeys in good time – and to drive carefully on busy roads.

Christmas is a time to enjoy an abundance of seasonal delicacies.

Photo: Carolina Romare/

Modernisation of Christmas

Christmas in Sweden is a blend of domestic and foreign customs that have been re-interpreted, refined and commercialised on their way from agrarian society to the modern age.

Today, most Swedes celebrate Christmas in roughly the same way, and many of the local customs and specialities have disappeared, although each family claims to celebrate it in true fashion in their own particular way.

The food you eat at Christmas may still depend on where you live in the country, or where you came from originally. But here, too, homogenisation has set in, due in no small part to the uniform offerings of the department stores and the ready availability of convenience foods. Few have time to salt their own hams or stuff their own pork sausages nowadays.

Ingmar Bergman’s Oscar-winning film Fanny and Alexander, although set in the late 1800s, nevertheless reflects Swedish Christmas celebrations today: a bright and lively occasion, full of excess, good food and happiness, but also a time during which family secrets tend to surface.

Christmas, holiday and – hopefully – snow! Perfect for playing outdoors.

Photo: Carolina Romare/

Christmas holidays

Holiday leave over Christmas and the New Year is fairly long, usually extending a week into January. Once Christmas Eve is over, a series of enjoyable − or, in some cases, dutiful − visits to friends and relatives ensues.

Swedes often travel many a mile during the holiday period. Christmas Day with the Anderssons, Boxing Day with the Johanssons and a week’s skiing in the mountains with the Svenssons.

Perhaps celebrating Christmas is more complicated than ever nowadays. Present-day family constellations, comprising ex-wives and ex-husbands, children from marriages old and new, newly acquired relatives and mothers-in-law, are all hard to fit into the nuclear family celebration that, deep down, all Swedes prefer. As though they weren’t already under enough pressure to celebrate a perfect Christmas.

High expectations

As a rule, Swedes expect a great deal from their Christmases. There should be snow on the ground but blue skies and sunshine, everyone is expected to be in good health, the ham must be succulent and tasty, and presents must be numerous. Moreover, the children are expected to be happy and well behaved and the home is expected to be warm and bright.

Everyone does their best, and the Swedes perhaps are better placed than most to celebrate Christmas. The ever-present candles and lights provide a nice contrast to the winter dark, the red wooden cottages are at their most attractive when embedded in snow, and the fir trees stand dark and sedate at the edge of the forest. Santa Claus moves about the land and the North Star pulsates up there in the night sky.

The perfect Christmas tree?

A few days before Christmas Eve, Swedes venture forth to look for the perfect Christmas tree. This is a serious matter − the tree is the very symbol of Christmas, and it must be densely and evenly branched, and straight. If you live in a city or town, you buy the tree in the street or square.

Those who live in the country fell their Christmas trees themselves. Many Swedes believe − mistakenly − that their legal right of access to the countryside allows them to fetch a tree from the woods wherever they like, with an axe, a bucksaw or − as in western Värmland on the Norwegian border − with a shotgun. Not to be recommended.

Trees are decorated according to family tradition. Some are bedecked with flags, others with tinsel and many with coloured baubles. Electric lights are usually preferred to candles on the tree because of the risk of fire.

Homes are also decorated with wall hangings depicting brownies and winter scenes, with tablecloths in Christmas patterns, and with candlesticks, little Father Christmas figures and angels. The home is filled with the powerful scent of hyacinths.

At three o’clock, the whole of Sweden turns on the TV to watch a cavalcade of Disney film scenes that have been shown ever since the 1960s without anyone tiring of them. Only then can the celebrations begin in earnest.

Finding the perfect Christmas tree is perhaps the ultimate Christmas challenge. Family tradition often dictates how the tree should be decorated.

Photo: Helena Wahlman/

Abundance of food

Christmas presents are under the lighted tree, candles shine brightly and the smorgasbord (or smörgåsbord, as it’s written in Swedish) has been prepared with all the classic dishes: Christmas ham, pork sausage, an egg and anchovy mixture (gubbröra), herring salad, pickled herring, home-made liver pâté, wort-flavoured rye bread (vörtbröd), potatoes and a special fish dish, lutfisk.

The ham is first boiled, then painted and glazed with a mixture of egg, breadcrumbs and mustard. Lutfisk is dried ling or sathe soaked in water and lye to swell before it is cooked.

Once all have eaten their fill, Santa Claus himself arrives to wish the gathering a Merry Christmas and distribute the presents.

Last updated: 24 February 2021

Po Tidholm & Agneta Lilja

Po Tidholm is a freelance journalist and a critic based in the province of Hälsingland. In the collection 'Celebrating the Swedish Way', he has written the main sections about how we celebrate in Sweden today. ||| Agneta Lilja is a lecturer in ethnology at Södertörn University College, Stockholm. She also writes reviews and appears on radio and tv. In the collection 'Celebrating the Swedish Way', Lilja has written the sections about the history of Swedish traditions and festivities.