Due to Covid-19, there are currently restrictions on travels to and from Sweden. A negative Covid-19 test certificate is required for foreign citizens coming to Sweden. For more details and updated information, please visit krisinformation.se, official emergency information from Swedish authorities.


Saving the climate

We can still save the climate. Lowering carbon emissions is key, and Sweden has managed to combine falling emission levels with a growing economy – as one of few industrialised countries. This is how.

Start exploring

Let's save the climate

Safeguarding the future

Sweden is known for its undeveloped wilderness and archipelagoes, stretching from the European mainland to the Arctic. Meeting the environmental challenges of the future is not just about protecting landscapes, though, and Sweden is making big strides towards safeguarding the future as well as conserving the past.

An environmental pioneer

The first country in the world to pass an environmental protection act in 1967, Sweden also hosted the first UN conference on the global environment in 1972. Since then, Sweden has not looked back, managing to grow its economy substantially while reducing carbon emissions and limiting pollution. More than half of Sweden’s national energy supply comes from renewables and a thorough legislation aims at further reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

For more than a decade, Sweden has been in the top ten of the globally respected Environmental Performance Index produced by Columbia and Yale universities, with exceptionally clean air and clean water alongside its low emissions.

There is still much to be done, though, and being one of the world’s wealthiest countries increases Sweden’s overall environmental footprint. It might seem an impossible struggle, but previous successes on everything from tackling acid rain to recycling show that environment and development can go hand in hand.

Ambitious goals for sustainability

Climate change caused by the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is one of the foremost global environment problems today. The Swedish government has set ambitious goals for sustainability, including going fossil-free by 2045 and 100 per cent renewable energy.

‘Emissions need to be reduced at a speed to ensure sustainable global growth. Transition needs to be effective and establish long-term rules,’ Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven has said about the challenges ahead.

Statistics Sweden offers a breakdown of emissions of air pollutants in Sweden over time.

A hub for environmental research

The last few decades have seen Sweden become a focus for leading environmental research. Stockholm now boasts the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Stockholm Resilience Centre and the groundbreaking Environmental Humanities Laboratory at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology.

‘We can show the world that you can build a modern welfare state within nature’s limits.’

Professor Johan Rockström, the head of Stockholm Resilience Centre, thinks that Sweden can go even further and be a model for other countries to follow.

‘Sweden can develop a vision for transition to sustainable welfare, where we put down goals of being the world’s first fossil-free nation,’ Rockström says. ‘We can show the world that you can build a modern welfare state within nature’s limits.’

Professor Johan RockströmProfessor Johan Rockström always carries a tiny marble in his pocket to remind himself of the earth’s limitations. Photo: Maja Suslin/TT

Sustainability and development hand in hand

The Swedish green model means integrating business and sustainability. Together with its Nordic neighbours, Sweden has emphasised that green growth can drive transition through technical innovation rather than pose a risk. This involves adapting society to cope with environmental changes already underway. Man-made global warming means temperatures are predicted to rise by at least 2 degrees centigrade over the next century, and issues such as food security, extreme weather and economic upheaval could be felt by countries all over the world.

The fight for sustainability is global, and in 2015 the world agreed on 17 sustainable development goals. Sweden still has some way to go, but the innovations being made now show that safeguarding our environment and developing society are part of the same challenge.

Continue to next article

Climate-smart cities

By 2050 two-thirds of the world’s population will live in cities, according to the UN, and Sweden has one of the fastest rates of urbanisation in Europe. The capital of Stockholm is growing so quickly that all kinds of challenges need to be met. Its 1950s motorways are overcrowded and millions of people need to be supplied with clean water, clean heat and clean energy.

In the developing world, the solution has often been to build more homes on forest and farmland, but in 1995 the city of Stockholm decided instead to found the world’s first urban national park and protect its green spaces. Old industrial areas have been and are being redeveloped as efficient low-energy housing, and the city has extended its tram routes.

In 2019 Stockholm won the World Smart City Award for its GrowSmarter project, which is considered ‘innovative, open and connected’.

Sustainable housing

On the edge of Stockholm’s urban park, the new ‘eco-quarter’ of Norra Djurgårdsstaden, Stockholm Royal Seaport, is using an old gasworks to build thousands of eco-friendly homes complete with biogas produced from food waste, as well as providing electric car chargers and planning a new tram line. But the real innovation is behind the walls and under the ground.

‘Swedes use three times as much energy as the global average’

Swedes use three times as much energy as the global average to combat the cold climate and power their high-tech society, but living in cities is potentially more energy-efficient too. Stockholm Royal Seaport is a test bed for a globally innovative smart energy grid in partnership with energy companies, universities and homebuilders.

Västra hamnen, the Western Harbour, in Malmö – with the Turning Torso skyscraper as the landmark – has been transformed from a depreciating area to a carbon-neutral neighbourhood. Photo: Jann Lipka

Future transport

In other parts of Sweden, urban innovation is making waves too. In Umeå, near the Arctic Circle, locally engineered electric buses are now an everyday sight. Using patented fast-charge technology they can service an entire city without wires, and will soon be standard.

In Stockholm around 850,000 people use public transport on a normal day. The entire underground system runs on green electricity, and as of 2017 all buses are running on renewable fuels, which was actually the target for 2025.

The city of the future could look a lot like a Swedish city. The real challenge is building these state-of-the-art solutions quickly enough to keep up with the rapid growth of both Sweden’s and Europe’s urban populations.

Continue to next article

The green innovation generation

Stina Behrens is a graduate of the Beckmans College of Design in Stockholm. A few years ago, she and her classmates were frustrated about the lack of sustainability in industry, so they set about changing it.

After graduating, Behrens joined the board of Cradle Net, a national multidisciplinary network working to implement and spread information about the circular economy. At the time of writing she was employed by the design agency Transformator as a service designer. Through service design, the agency helps companies change the way they work from traditional to innovative new methods. In the last few years, Transformator and its contemporaries have seen a growing number of major companies interested in sustainability.

‘We see a great amount of potential in helping large companies move towards a circular economy,’ Behrens says. ‘We can help by moving to completely new consumption models. Right now, some really big companies are rethinking how they do business.’

Stina Behrens, service designer, in conversation with two other people.Service designer Stina Behrens to the left. Photo: Transformator

Changing consumer behaviour

This approach focuses on service as much as on the products themselves. If things have to be scrapped they can be recycled, but it is also a question of consumer behaviour; the key to a sustainable economy is changing how people meet their consumer needs. This means that every product has a mapped life cycle, and that customers become users rather than owners. In 2015, the Swedish Government even made the circular economy part of its annual address to parliament.

The key to a sustainable economy is changing how people meet their consumer needs

‘When I came to design, I was very interested in the world around me and in ideas of social sustainability, and that guided me,’ Behrens says.

Several of her classmates are now working in similar roles, and one has started an environmental design consultancy to help green the economy, Beteendelabbet, ‘the behaviour lab’, changing how people consume products.

Renewable energy

Towards a circular economy

Behrens belongs to a generation of young people who have made sustainability their professional work. Swedish universities are now even obliged by law to integrate sustainable development into their curriculum, from literature to finance.

‘This is an area where Sweden can take a leading role in moving to a more sustainable circular economy,’ Behrens says. ‘We’re ready.’

Continue to next article

From resource economy to bioeconomy

An important part of Sweden’s economic transition strategy – apart from reducing emissions – is about actively trying to use natural processes to produce energy, industrial products and much else. This so-called bioeconomy involves much more than making things more environmentally friendly – Sweden is pioneering ways to use natural materials that are 100 per cent recyclable and can be part of the ‘cradle-to-grave’ process.

Sweden has a wealth of sustainable natural resources to work with. Already, nearly 55 per cent of the energy consumed comes from renewables, and its managed forests already provide the main supply of wood products to the EU.

Turning wood into textiles

In the Gothenburg suburb of Mölndal, a pioneering project is underway to develop these raw materials to produce fabrics. At present, many high-street products use either cheap plastics or intensively farmed cotton, both of which are bad for the environment. In a consumer economy like Sweden’s, this means a lot of waste and ethical problems from cheaply made overseas fabrics. They often pollute their local environment during production, and cannot always be recycled when they are worn out.

Fabric productionSustainable fabric production. Photo: SWEREA

One kilo of cotton can require as much as 20,000 litres of water to grow, often in countries where water is in short supply. Domestically produced Swedish wood fibre is not irrigated and pesticides are strictly controlled, and it opens up the possibility of a ‘cradle-to-cradle’ process. That means mapping the product from first beginnings to final recycling to guarantee 100 per cent sustainability.

One kilo of cotton can require as much as 20,000 litres of water to grow

In the Mölndal project, Swedish researchers are using cellulose from trees to spin textile fibres on an industrial scale under the eye of Pernilla Walkenström, Professor of Textiles at the University of Borås.

‘The aim of the project is to develop locally produced textiles in Sweden,’ she says. ‘Using domestic Swedish materials, we want to create sustainable production.’

Bioeconomy – a game changer

The challenge is to gain a competitive edge by investing in green technology, by both using domestic resources and developing methods that other countries could use to become more sustainable. According to the Swedish Forest Industries Federation, the woodland bioeconomy has an export value of SEK 132 billion (EUR 12 billion) a year (2017) and is a high-tech industry employing thousands of people.

This bioeconomy is crucial not only to Sweden’s economic future, but also to changing the way the world produces and uses its raw materials.

These texts were written by Dominic Hinde.

Read more about Sweden and sustainability in other stories and fact sheets on sweden.se.

Continue to next article

Swedish environmental milestones

Sweden’s reputation as an environmental pioneer began more than half a century ago. Here are some milestones, past and future.


Sweden was the first country to establish an environmental protection agency, Naturvårdsverket.


Sweden hosted the first UN con­ference on the environment, which led to the creation of the United Nations Envi­ronment Programme (UNEP), the leading global environmental authority to this day.


Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce a carbon tax, which has helped reduce depend­ency on fossil fuels.

1998 and 2002

Sweden was one of the first na­tions to sign and ratify the international climate change treaty Kyoto Protocol.


The Stockholm Convention, largely a Swedish initiative, was a global treaty aimed at phasing out the production and use of persistent organic pollutants.


Sweden’s renewable share of the total energy consumption is was nearly 55 per cent.


Sweden ranked second in the Global Cleantech Innovation Index and in the UN Sustainable Goals Index, and topped the Global Sustainable Competitiveness Index.


Goal: That Sweden’s emission of greenhouse gases is 40 per cent lower than in 1990.


Goal: The Swedish transport sector is fossil-free.


Goal: Sweden is fossil-free and, thus, climate-neutral.

Continue to next article